Basic principles of effective leadership
It is not a secret for anyone that every person strives to achieve certain goals that he sets before his life. Most often, the goals are material goods, as well as the maximum satisfaction from any activities.
Such aspirations are incentives that encourage people to engage in work, as well as perform socially useful functions. It turns out that without them, the construction of an effective team would be impossible.
It is on them that motivation is built. The use of processes in the human psyche, allows the leadership to put a variety of incentives to perform their own tasks. So you can continue indefinitely until it reaches the main goal set by the authorities.
In turn, they are forced to interact with more important people, as well as with competitors or related organizations.We are no longer talking about a clear guide, but a certain influence and personal interests are also seen here.
Recognition and glory
Incentives may not only be material, although they are most often used.
Employee motives can be divided into two groups:
- external, represented by the desire for advantage;
- internal - the desire to preserve their finances and good mood.
Moreover, not every stimulus will be correctly perceived by a certain person. To do this, it is necessary to develop a smart approach that implies motivation as a management function. He will allow to find the methods for management of each person.
It is also worth considering differences in situations that require the use of motivation. The same methods cannot work equally profitably at different enterprises, in different branches of human activity and even in different departments of the same company.
Classification of people in terms of motivation
Management theorists have developed a classification according to which all employees can be divided into several categories that require different methods of motivation.
With the first, everything is clear - they seek to gain material and psychological benefits. The latter want to avoid punishment, as well as getting a position in the team.
Motivation, as a management function, is applied to both classes. Sociologists have determined that the second category, working to avoid poor status (for example, unemployed or poor), are mostly simple workers. Among them, the proportion of people who do not have “achievement” motivation is 26%, and among management personnel, only 3%. Accordingly, in a team, mostly consisting of such employees, the application of fines and penalties for poor-quality work will be effective.
Encouragement should be applied carefully - practice shows that people who have not received encouragement, consider it unfair and treat this as a personal insult.
An “attainment” group of people is divided into several smaller subgroups.
It is the lowest level of the “achievement” group of people, which is characterized by attitude to work as a means to achieve other goals. The best incentive for it will be monetary.
When trying to encourage non-financial incentive in the form of a badge of distinction or increase in public status, there may be problems with a mismatch between the motivation and the expectation of a person.
A higher level is considered professional. Such people do not agree to perform uninteresting work regardless of the level of payment. They are also interested in moving up the career ladder.
At the same time with material motivation, they can be used for promotion status, which will give them a new position, level or rank.
A master type is a bit like a professional, but for him a change of positions and obtaining material benefits is a way to make money. As well as the possibility of self-starting business.
Motivation, as a function of management, identifies another kind of employees, which belongs to the patriotic type. They rarely seek money or higher. For them, the incentive is the implementation of a particular idea, as well as participation in this process. Such people are usually actively involved in social activities, as well as part of volunteer and charitable organizations.
The best kind of motivation for the “patriots” will be the correct setting of goals and the allocation of intermediate points on the way to their implementation.
Principles of motivation
Any motivation should be considered, not as a system that unites the team, but as a means of achieving the goal for which it was originally created. Accordingly, the focus of motivation should help the company to earn.
You can avoid this negative, if you correctly understand the rules of motivation:
- common goals of individual employees and enterprises;
- combining material and psychological incentives;
- the creation of a demotivation system and fines;
- the delimitation of the contributions of individual employees,
- lack of a guarantor system.
According to the second paragraph, it is necessary to simultaneously use two different types of motivation, which allow to achieve maximum satisfaction of employees.
What is the encouragement of employees?
The most common form of material incentives for staff is regular wages. Its disadvantage is the lack of separation of deposits - “leveling”. This minus is removed by using the bonus system.
The system of interest rewards is quite widespread. The employee’s salary directly depends on the profit, turnover, amount of certain contracts of the enterprise. The result is obvious - the employee seeks to improve his performance, the company receives additional income from his efforts.
The disadvantage is the recognition by many people of the fact that most of the results of their work are appropriated by the owners of the enterprise,whereas they have a small share of earnings. In addition to interest, bonus salary, equity and other systems are used.
Intangible stimulation calls for psychological factors of motivation. This includes moral satisfaction from earning income, doing work, and achieving a certain social status. The use of these methods allows you to ensure the ability of employees who belong to the highest "achievement" classes.
Replacing this method is:
- the use of additional training of the most promising employees,
- provision of a workplace of increased comfort,
- priority sending to foreign business trips,
- provision of corporate transport.
It is often used in practice conditional promotion, attracting the professional type of people. The status of "leading" or "senior" often does not imply significant differences in responsibilities.The lack of leadership and wage increases, however, brings satisfaction with one belonging to the upper class.
International experts, who apply their knowledge and skills in practice, argue that motivation has another classification.
They divide the methods used into effective and status. The first is characteristic of Western-type enterprises, which highlight the contribution of individual employees to the achievement of the company's common goals. The basis of the promotion is the result of activity, which manifests itself in specific indicators - for example, sales, profitability, profitability, and savings.
It is more often used by large Asian firms that reduce the role of the individual and bring to the forefront the interests of the collective. Once every six months, all employees are assessed in the form of an anonymous vote, where each team member expresses his opinion of his colleagues.
Often, several basic parameters are used, which include:
- efficiency of activities in the area of direct responsibilities;
- cooperation and mutual assistance;
- social relationships;
- support for general corporate goals.
Based on the voting results, ratings are compiled that allow employees to obtain certain statuses. Further decision regarding the practical application of such statuses depends on the specific company. The result of the implementation of the system can be a lot - from the distribution of posts to the provision of corporate transport and the most convenient places in the office.
The disadvantage is the need to have a sufficiently large team, where the errors will be completely concealed by the number of respondents.
Many experts also talk about the need to include free time in the rating system, in connection with which another classification arises. Motivation can be associated with obtaining free time or the possibility of additional income.
Most people choose exactly the first, since work is for them a means of achieving wealth, and not an end in itself.However, it is necessary to clearly understand the motives of the employee - many will gratefully accept the opportunity to perform additional work if it is well paid.
It is also worth understanding that the extra work without remuneration of an employee is demotivation. If a team develops a situation that is associated with an increase in the amount of work or an emergency job, you need to take care of the availability of decent remuneration for work.
Otherwise, processing can be equated to a fine, since the cost of one hour is significantly reduced. The situation is the same in the case of the need to temporarily replace an absent employee.