The Amur River is the mouth, source and tributaries. Brief characteristics and features of the water flow
None of the residents of the Far East will beTo argue that their main river is the Amur. It is located on the fourth place among the rivers of the Russian Federation, trailing in its length only such majestic streams as the Ob, Yenisei and Lena. The mouth of the Amur is the Sea of Okhotsk.
a brief description of
The water flow is formed due to Arguni mergerand Shilki. The place where it originates, to Khabarovsk is considered a border between two countries: Russia and China. The slope of the channel is no more than 0.11%. The source and mouth of the Amur River stretch for 2850 km. Sometimes, as a starting point, one of the components of the rivers, Shilku, is taken, in which case the length of the water flow will be 4510 km. However, these values may not be exactly accurate, since the measurement process is rather complicated. The area of the basin, including the Kerulen River, is 2 million square meters. km. Throughout the entire water flow, characteristic differences can be observed. So, for example, its valley is divided into three parts: lower, middle, upper. Each of these sites has certain dimensions of the depth and width of the channel, as well as the nature of the current. The height of the mouth of the Amur River (as well as the height of the sea) is 0 m, while the source is 304 m above sea level.
The entire water-flow basin is located inEast Asia. It covers at once four natural zones: forest, steppe, forest-steppe, semi-desert. Each year, about 300 mm of precipitation falls, the same number of which enters the source and mouth of the Amur River; in the Sikhote-Alin Range, in particular in its southeastern part, this number is increased to 750 mm.
The basin of the river covers several states at once: Russia (54%), China (44%), Mongolia (1%). Part of the Amur, which is located in the Russian Federation, is divided into the Far East and Siberian.
The Amur River, the mouth of which is located in the city of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, is divided into three sections:
- Lower. It stretches for 966 km.Has an industrial significance. It is located in the mouth of Ussuri to Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. The speed of the current in this interval reaches 4 km / h, this allows you to successfully fish not only for personal purposes, but also for sale.
- Average. Captures the site from Zeya to Ussuri.The length is more than 970 km. The banks in this area are densely covered with vegetation. The movement of water in the flow averages about 5 km / h. The channel at this interval is wide enough and deep, which contributes to the development of navigation.
- Upper. It stretches to the mouth of the Zeya River and occupies about 880 km. It is famous for its diversity of flora and fauna. You can often meet representatives of salmon. The current speed is 5 km / h.
The water consumption for the year is 9819 m3/ s, basically these data take into account the flow in the city of Komsomolsk, where the Amur River flows. The mouth also spends much more - 11,400 m3/from.
The uniqueness and peculiarity of the water flow can bename that the water level in it is constantly changing because of the rains. As a rule, they account for more than 70% of the runoff. In the summer low water level drops to 15 m at the upper, as well as in the middle part of the Amur, in the lower height reaches a record decline - up to 8 m. In some areas the stream spills up to a distance of 25 km. Basically, this is due to the characteristic climatic conditions, in particular constant heavy rains. This state of the river can last almost up to 2-3 months. At the moment, after the construction of numerous waterworks, floods are less pronounced, and the water level fluctuates around 6 m.
In this water flow, the indicators of harmful substancestoo overstated and can be dangerous both for the world around them and for human health. In 2005, there was an accident at the Chinese plant, because of which poisonous chemicals were thrown out in the Sungari. This case adversely affected the ecological state of rivers that have common tributaries. One of them brought gasoline, nitrobenzene and other substances to the Amur. For a long time they lay huge spots on the surface of its waters. Phenol, nitrates and other microbiological particles - it all contains the Amur River. The mouth, the waters of which are polluted quite strongly, is on the verge of an ecological catastrophe. In order to save water in the Khabarovsk region, a dam was built. This allowed to change the movement of the river and send all the chemical pollution to the northern shore, which is located in Russia. A year later, the dam was partially disassembled, because there was no need for it.
Three years after the accident at the plant, in 2008,residents of coastal areas found an oil slick, the size of which reached an average of 2 km. However, as scientists have tried, its origin has not been able to establish.
The Amur River, whose mouth is rich in tributaries, has several streams:
- Zeya is the largest river in the basin.
- Bureya - rich in deposits of ore, coal.
- Songhua-jiang, or Sungari, has serious environmental problems.
- Ussuri is an important water supply.
- Anyuy - the distinctive feature of the river is that it was ripe on it.
- Amgun is very rich in fish and has an important industrial significance.
Recently there was an opinion that the Amur isthe tributary of Zeya, and not vice versa. Thanks to the images from space, you can understand that it is much fuller and wider. From the geological point of view, its valley is a continuation of the Amur (looking south-north). However, the source remote from the mouth is due to the traditional method - through Argun, Amur. Therefore, the width and fullness of the river in determining the tributaries are taken into account quite rarely.