Constant epithets: examples, history, use
Few modern people, not associated with the art world, are familiar with such a literary term as permanent epithets, examples of such expressions are rarely found in conversational speech of people.
However, such special epithets exist, and this gives us the opportunity to talk about them. Consider the issues of the appearance of these expressions, their existence and scientific study.
Definition of phenomenon
To begin, let's define thisliterary phenomenon. If we ask ourselves what epithets, definitions and examples of this term are, we learn that the epithet is one of the means of creating a figurative artistic text. Therefore, it is called a figurative comparison.
The permanent epithet is stable and manifests itself in traditional imagery.
Therefore this group finds its vivid embodiment first of all in the folklore texts of various peoples living on the earth.
Scientific understanding of the problem
It is proved that the permanent epithets are most characteristic of oral folklore. Their main difference from other kinds of epithets is a stable character.
This tradition is continued in the literarycreativity, closely associated with folklore material, which, for example, is the experience of artistic literature of the people. Initially, culture did not have a great variety of colors. Understanding the world and people from the people was built on two colors - white and black. The permanent epithets "white" and "black" used by the prose writers reflected the symbolic component of the people's worldview. In the mythological representation of traditional peoples, white refers to the deities of the Upper World, and black refers to the deities of the Lower World. According to mythology, the Upper World is inhabited by good beings, and in the Lower world - evil. Therefore, each of them needs a different color.
Hence, permanent epithets are born, examples of which we will give below.
So, white means good,divine, and therefore, preserving. In the literature, images with the epithet "black" are most often associated with dynamics - event or descriptive. A similar meaning of the epithet "black" is also observed in the Russian classics. "Black faces" is an archetype of sorrow, grief. "Bright face" is an image of joy.
Permanent epithet: examples, types, definition, use in the literature
Epithets have different species content. However, in relation to each other, they are in an antonymous connection, as adjectives "white" and "black."
Consider the other meanings of the epithet "white", notThey are connected with the idea of a pagan pantheon. In the story of E. Aipin "At the fading hearth" is given the image of the White Tsar: "I vividly imagined the White Tsar. He has white-golden, like the Sun before the winter weather, a crown-cap on his head. White, probably, from gray hair, hair. White beard. White coat is supposed to be made of skins of white deer. White mittens made of white kamus. White boots-kisy also from white kamus. White king in all white. That's why he's White. And white is the color of life. "
How do the constant epithets manifest themselves in this text, the examples of which we have just seen in the text?
In this case, white is the embodiment oflife, natural energy, life-giving forces. It is in this sense that the white contrasts the red in the story of E. Aipin's "God's message", which refers to Lipetsk, who fought on the side of whites. He does not admit his guilt and says: "No, people will stay. But not red, but just people with faith, people with God will remain ... "
Epithets with negative and positive semantic meaning
Constant epithets, examples of which we see in this work, often include color characteristics as the most archetypal way of knowing the world.
Red for folklore of peoplesthe north (for example, the Khanty) can not bear life, the beginning of any positive movement, it is always the beginning of the end. In this context, the question is clear: in the story of E. Aipin "Russian healer" Joseph Sardakov asks: "If on my land, in my house comes red with a rifle, with a machine gun, with a gun, what should I do?"
As you can see, the epithet "red" bears a negative connotation, and it is used as applied to unkind, evil people.
On the contrary, in the works of Russian folklore "red" is a constant epithet with positive semantic meaning.
Results of the study of epithets with a constant value
What conclusion can be drawn by studying such a phenomenon as a permanent epithet, examples of which are easy to find in the works of oral folk art?
The conclusion is as follows: archetypal permanent epithets ("black", "red", "white", etc.) reflect in the works of folklore is not at all social belonging, but deeds and intentions towards others. So, the constant epithets in literature, as well as in folklore, carry in themselves the qualitative attributes that give certain objects and objects to the people, they become universally recognized archetypes.
Thus a permanent epithet is born, examples of which we have considered in this article.