Fire alarm system. Defend your family
If you look at the website of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, you can findunpleasant information about the consequences of fires in the Russian Federation. The first place is occupied by human lives, which took fire - about 10-12 thousand per year. Further, the sad list continues the buildings and structures destroyed by this element. And such objects for a year can be typed up to 40 thousand, and almost always there is no system of fire alarm. In addition, each fire destroys a certain property, the value of which for the year in our country is estimated at 12 billion rubles.
In order not to risk real estate,values, and, most importantly, with their lives and the lives of their loved ones, fire inspectors and MES recommend that appropriate equipment be installed in an apartment or a private house.
Fire alarm is a complex set of devices. It performs the following functions:
- constant assessment of the state of the object;
- detection of ignition in the early stages;
- precise location of the ignition;
- transfer of information to the fire control panel, residents and owners of the house;
- start-up of fire extinguishing systems (optional).
The fire alarm system consists of the following components:
- a receiving and monitoring device that collects information about the state of the fire situation in the building from the sensors;
- loops that connect the control panel to the sensors;
- sensors (are manual (are included by the person),smoke-optoelectronic, thermal, aspirating, gas, there are also open flame sensors, combined and linear fire detectors - thermal cables);
- annunciators (sound, light, combined, sirens, pointers).
Also in the composition of fire alarms used in private facilities, often includes an automatic fire extinguishing system, which begins to work on a signal from the receiving and monitoring device.
Depending on the components that extinguish the fire, automatic fire extinguishing systems are divided into systems:
- finely sprayed fire fighting water;
- aerosol extinguishing using an aerosol mass containing an inert gas;
- powder fire extinguishing;
- Foam fire extinguishing;
- Gas fire extinguishing with gas refrigerant for premises where there are no people.
The fire alarm system exists intwo options - wired and wireless. In the first case, the control device is connected to the sensors by means of loops. In the second, information is transmitted via signals. The wireless option is considered preferable due to easy installation of the system, no need to lay cable traces in the walls, easy maintenance, the possibility of transferring the sensors to another location and an acceptable price.
Also, a fire alarm system canbe address-polling, address-analog or threshold. The most reliable is the first one in which all sensors are connected to a loop with a ring configuration, and the system sequentially "interrogates" each sensor for signs of fire.
The address-analog system is not exactly suitable forhome use, tk. in it the sensors only transmit information to the console and give the alarm signal in this case the dispatcher must. And the threshold system transmits data to a whole loop, so it is difficult to detect a specific place of fire.
The Fire Inspection recommends that such athe alarm of an apartment and a house where there are small children left unattended, elderly, disabled, because in this case the probability of loss of human life or property in fire is reduced to almost zero.