Great Russian travelers and their discoveries
Great Russian travelers, whose listrather large, pushed the development of maritime trade, and also raised the prestige of their country. The scientific community learned more and more information not only about geography, but also about the animal and plant world, and most importantly - about people living in other parts of the world, and their customs. Trace the traces of the great Russian travelers their geographical discoveries.
Fedor Filippovich Konyukhov
The great Russian traveler Fedor Konyukhovis not only a famous lover of adventure, but also an artist, a deserved master of sports. He was born in 1951. Since childhood, he could have done something that would have been hard enough for his peers - bathing in cold water. He could easily sleep in the hayloft. Fedor was in good physical shape and could run for long distances - several tens of kilometers. At the age of 15 he managed to cross the Sea of Azov, using a rowing fishing boat. Significantly influenced Fedor and his grandfather, who wanted a young man to become a traveler, but the boy himself aspired to it. Great Russian travelers often began to prepare in advance for their campaigns and maritime wanderings.
Fedor Filippovich Konyukhov participated in the 40thtravels, repeated the Bering route on the yacht, as well as sailed from Vladivostok to the Commander Islands, visited Sakhalin and Kamchatka. At 58, he conquered Everest, as well as the 7 highest peaks in the team with other climbers. He visited both the North and South Poles, on his account 4 round-the-world sea voyages, the Atlantic crossed them 15 times. Feodor Filippovich displayed his impressions with the help of drawing. So he wrote 3,000 paintings. The great geographical discoveries of Russian travelers were often reflected in their own literature, so Fedor Konyukhov left behind 9 books.
The great Russian traveler Afanasy Nikitin(Nikitin - the patronymic of the merchant, since his father was Nikita) lived in the 15th century, and the year of his birth is unknown. He proved that even a person from a wealthy family can travel so far, the main thing is to set a goal. He was an experienced merchant, who before India visited the Crimea, Constantinople, Lithuania and the Moldavian principality and brought home overseas goods.
He himself was from Tver.Russian merchants went to Asia to establish contacts with local merchants. They themselves drove there, mostly furs. By the will of fate, Athanasius found himself in India, where he lived for three years. Upon his return to his homeland, he was robbed and killed near Smolensk. Great Russian travelers and their discoveries remain forever in history, because for the sake of progress, bold and brave lovers of wanderings often died in dangerous and long expeditions.
Discoveries of Afanasy Nikitin
Afanasy Nikitin became the first Russiana traveler who visited India and Persia, on the way back he visited Turkey and Somalia. During his wanderings, he made notes "Walking for the Three Seas", which later became a tool for studying the culture and customs of other countries. Particularly well depicted in his records is medieval India. He swam across the Volga, the Arabian and Caspian seas, the Black Sea. When the merchants near Astrakhan were robbed by the Tatars, he did not want to return home with everyone and enter the debt hole, but continued his journey, heading to Derbent, then to Baku.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Miklouho-Maclay
Miklouho-Maclay is from a noble family, howeverafter the death of his father he had to learn what it means to live in poverty. He had a rebel nature - at the age of 15 he was arrested for participating in the demonstration of students. Because of this, he not only found himself under arrest in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where he stayed for three days, but was expelled from the gymnasium with further prohibition of admission, so he was deprived of the opportunity to obtain higher education in Russia, which he subsequently did only in Germany.
Ernst Haeckel, a lot of famousnaturalist, drew attention to the curious 19-year-old boy and invited Miklouho-Maclay to an expedition, the purpose of which was to study marine fauna. Nikolai Nikolaevich died at the age of 42, while his diagnosis was "a strong deterioration of the body." He, like many other great Russian travelers, sacrificed a significant part of his life in the name of new discoveries.
Discoveries of Miklukho-Maclay
In 1869, Miklouho-Maclay with the support of the RussianThe geographic society leaves for New Guinea. The beach where he landed is now called "Maclay Coast". After spending more than a year on the expedition, he discovered new lands. The natives learned from a Russian traveler how to grow a pumpkin, corn, beans, how to care for fruit trees. He spent 3 years in Australia, visited Indonesia, the Philippines, the islands of Melanesia and Micronesia. He also persuaded local residents not to impede anthropological research. 17 years of life he studied the indigenous population of the islands of the Pacific, South-East Asia. Thanks to Miklouho-Maclay, the assumption was made that the Papuans are another kind of person. Apparently, the great Russian travelers and their discoveries allowed the rest of the world not only to learn more about geographic research, but also about other people living in new territories.
Nikolai Mikhailovich Przhevalsky
Przheval'skii was favored by the family of the emperor,the end of the first trip he had the honor to meet Alexander II, who transferred his collection to the Russian Academy of Sciences. His son Nikolai liked the works of Nikolai Mikhailovich very much, and he wanted to be his disciple, he also contributed to the publication of stories about the 4th expedition, having granted 25 thousand rubles. The Cesarevitch always eagerly awaited the letters from the traveler and was glad even for a short news about the expedition.
Apparently, even during his life, Przhevalsky becamea fairly well-known person, and his works and deeds received great publicity. However, as sometimes happens, when the great Russian travelers and their discoveries become famous, many details of life, as well as the circumstances of his death, are still covered in mystery. Nikolai Mikhaylovich did not have descendants, because, having understood in advance what fate awaits him, he would not allow himself to condemn his beloved person to constant expectations and loneliness.
Discoveries of Przewalski
Thanks to the expeditions of Przewalski, the Russianscientific prestige received a new push. During the 4 expeditions the traveler traveled about 30 thousand kilometers, he visited Central and West Asia, the Tibetan Plateau and the southern part of the Takla-Makan desert. He discovered many ranges (Moscow, Mysterious, etc.), described the largest rivers in Asia.
Many have heard of Przewalski's horse (subspecieswild horse), but few know about the richest zoological collection of mammals, birds, amphibians and fish, a large number of records about plants and a collection of herbarium. In addition to the animal and vegetable world, as well as new geographical discoveries, the great Russian traveler Przhevalsky was interested in the peoples unknown to the Europeans - the Dungans, the northern Tibetans, the Tanguts, the Magians, the Lobnor people. He created the work "How to travel around Central Asia", which could serve as an excellent guide for researchers and military. Great Russian travelers, making discoveries, always gave knowledge for the development of sciences and the successful organization of new expeditions.
Ivan Fedorovich Krusenstern
The Russian navigator was born in 1770. He happened to be the head of the first round-the-world expedition from Russia, he is also one of the founders of Russian oceanology, an admiral, a corresponding member and an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. The great Russian traveler Kruzenshtern also took an active part when the Russian Geographical Society was created. In 1811 he was able to teach at the Marine Cadet Corps. Later, becoming a director, he organized a higher officer class. This academy then became naval.
In 1812, he allocated one-third of his fortune topeople's militia (the Patriotic War began). Until that time, three volumes of the books "Travel around the World" were published, which were translated into seven European languages. In 1813 Ivan Fedorovich included in the English, Danish, German and French scientific communities and academies. However, after 2 years he goes on an indefinite leave because of developing eye disease, complicated the situation and uneasy relations with the maritime minister. Many famous seafarers and travelers turned to Ivan Fyodorovich for advice and support.
Discoveries of Kruzenstern
For 3 years he was the head of the Russian expeditionaround the world on the ships "Neva" and "Hope". During the voyage the mouths of the Amur River had to be investigated. For the first time in history, the Russian fleet crossed the equator. Thanks to this trip and Ivan Fedorovich, for the first time on the map appeared the eastern, northern and north-western shores of the Sakhalin Island. Also, due to his works, the "Atlas of the South Sea" will be published, supplemented with hydrographic notes. Thanks to the expedition from the maps, the nonexistent islands were erased, the precise position of other geographic points was determined. Russian science learned about the cross-flow countercurrents in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, measured the water temperatures (depths up to 400 m), its specific gravity, color and transparency. Finally, the reason why the sea was shining became clear. Also there were data on atmospheric pressure, ebbs and tides in many regions of the World Ocean, which other great Russian travelers used in their expeditions.
Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev
The great traveler was born in 1605. Seaman, the explorer and trader, he was also a Cossack ataman. He was originally from Veliky Ustyug, and then moved to Siberia. Semyon Ivanovich was known for his diplomatic talent, courage and ability to organize and lead people. His name is geographic point (cape, bay, island, village, peninsula), premium, icebreaker, travel, streets, etc.
Semyon Ivanovich 80 years before Bering passed the strait(called Bering) between Alaska and Chukotka (in full, while Bering passed only a part). He and his team opened the sea route around the northeast part of Asia, reached Kamchatka. Nobody knew before about that part of the world where America almost met with Asia. Dezhnev passed the Arctic Ocean, bypassing the northern shore of Asia. He plotted the strait between the American and Asian shores, as well as the Chukchi Peninsula. After the ship was shipwrecked in the Olyutorsky Bay, his detachment, having only skis and sledges, got 10 weeks to the Anadyr River (thus losing 13 people out of 25). There is an assumption that the first settlers in Alaska became part of the team Dezhnev, separated from the expedition.
Thus, following the footsteps of the great Russianstravelers, one can see how the scientific community of Russia developed and developed, knowledge about the external world was enriched, which gave a huge impetus to the development of other industries.