How to help a person with a fracture?
Under this term is meant a complete or partial violation of the integrity of the bone component, resulting from injuries and ailments that affect bone density.
Recognize this pathology is quite simple.
After all, the following symptoms indicate the presence of bone damage:
Severe pain syndrome.
For example, with standard bruises, as with sprains, pain is first expressed, then tends to fade. But at the turn of time, the sensations are either sharp, or they are boiling loose.
With bruises and sprains, this manifestation usually gradually subsides. But with fractures, in particular, when first aid was absent, the swelling will only increase.
Cyanosis and redness of the dermis.
It is difficult to identify the fracture by this feature. After all, when bruises picture may be identical. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the presence of edema and the nature of pain.
This feature is characteristic of patients with a closed fracture with displacement. This is a characteristic symptom for which it is easiest to recognize a violation of the integrity of bones. Believe me, this does not happen with bruises.
Violation of the integrity of the skin, visualization of the bone.
This symptom is hard to miss. But it should be remembered that if you find such damage, then first aid for an open fracture should be provided immediately.
Also, these injuries can be accompanied by impaired consciousness, painful shock, massive bleeding, etc.
Symptoms of a lesion are directly related to the nature of the injury and damage to surrounding tissues, which are obtained as a result of mixing bones.
The classification of such injuries is quite extensive.
Thus, depending on the reason for their appearance, the following types are distinguished:
These are usually injuries of limbs and other bones caused by bumps or falls.
These are fractures resulting from diseases that reduce the strength of bone tissue. It may be cancer or bone tuberculosis, etc.
Depending on the presence of skin lesions, the following types of this pathology are distinguished:
There is a wound surface in which bone is often visible.These are complex injuries, with which first aid will be specific and as careful as possible, since there is a risk of developing an infection. Usually such fractures occur as a result of injuries and accidents. They can be combined (supplemented with trauma to the skull or internal organs) and combined.
This type of bone integrity is difficult to diagnose. After all, the symptoms, which is accompanied by a closed fracture, are similar to signs of bruises and dislocations. They are single and multiple.
Depending on the severity of the damage, there are 2 more groups:
They are of two types: without displacement (closed) and with displacement and fragments (closed or open).
These are bone injuries accompanied by cracks and breaks.
There is also a medical classification of damage data by direction and form:
- Transverse - scrapping is perpendicular to the axis of the tubular bone. This is usually damage to the limbs.
- V-shaped - one bone is literally pressed into the other. These injuries are characteristic of the ridge.
- Longitudinal - scrapping is placed parallel to the axis of the bone component.
- Comminuted - a single line of breaking is absent, the bone component is fragmented. Characteristic of all parts of the body, not just limbs.
- Oblique - scrapping is located at right angles to the axis.
- Helical - accompanied by displacement and "rotation" of bone fragments.
- Impacted - the proximal displacement of bone fragments is carried out along the axis of the tubular elements or outside the cancellous bone plane.
- Compression - the presence of small fragments of bone tissue, combined with the lack of a clear break line.
The classification of bone injuries is also highlighted, depending on the presence of associated injuries:
Damage to the bones of the limbs and other parts of the body can be accompanied by shock, damage to internal structures, bleeding of varying intensity, fat embolism, and infectious processes.
Regardless of the type of damage, it is important to call an ambulance. Prior to the arrival of physicians, it is necessary to provide first aid. After all, your skillful actions can reduce the risk of complications.
Features first aid
It should be understood that treatment in case of violation of the integrity of the bones should be urgent: the earlier it is started, the faster healing and recovery will be.
Competent physicians recommend that individuals who have found the injured take the following range of actions:
Call an ambulance.
This is the first step, which begins first aid, regardless of the patient's condition.
Wear gloves, especially if the victim is bleeding.
Consider that your safety is paramount, because you do not know whether the injured has dangerous infections, including HIV.
If the patient is bleeding, you should try to stop it.
For this, it is important to know how care is provided for various types of bleeding.
Assessment of the patient and his transportability.
In no case do not move the victim if there is a suspicion of a fracture of the ridge or multiple injuries to the bone tissue.
If you have a closed or open limb fracture, you should immobilize the affected area.
To do this, impose a tire. Any object having sufficient density to prevent movement of the limbs can act as a fixative.When immobilizing it is important to capture the joints that are above, as well as below the scrap area - by isolating the damage.
If you are sure that the spine is intact and there is only one damage to the bone component, you can transport the patient to the hospital yourself.
This can be done with bruises, sprains and other injuries, the symptoms of which are similar to a fracture.
- If there are analgesics, give them to the victim, asking him about the presence of allergies.
Do not attempt bone retraction! This manipulation can lead to severe complications.
The first medical aid in case of fractures consists in transporting the patient to a specialized institution using a stretcher with a rigid base.
Then the specialists perform the following actions:
- Elimination of pain, analgesics.
- Fight against life-threatening complications: bleeding, shock, etc.
- Immobilization of damaged parts.
- X-ray or other studies.
- Restoration of the natural bone structure. If a patient has an uncomplicated closed fracture, then reposition is appropriate, followed by the application of gypsum and discharge.If the injury is supplemented with bleeding or a fracture is complicated (damaged pelvis, spine, etc.), then the restoration of the bones is carried out during surgery. Then the patient is placed in the hospital. For immobilization use spokes, orthopedic structures, etc.
- Control of recovery.
As you can see, the method of first aid depends on the type of fracture (open or closed), its location and the presence of complications.
Knowing the simple rules of imposing tires and the symptoms of injuries of a different nature, you can easily help victims who are waiting for an ambulance.