July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

On July 21, 1774, on the territory of the Ottoman Empire in the small village of Kyuchuk-Kaynardzha (which in Turkish means “little hot spring”) a peace treaty was signed between the Russian and Turkish sides, which ended the six-year exhausting Russian-Turkish war.

The war was declared Ottoman on September 25, 1768 and the Turkish troops immediately began fighting. The traditional Turkish ambassador to Istanbul, Alexei Obrezkov, who represented Russian interests in the Ottoman capital for more than 30 years, became the first victim of the Turks. He was thrown into the casemates of the 7th Castle of Edikule.

However, on the battlefields, luck was accompanied by Russian troops under the leadership of Field Marshal Rumyantsev. The result was a brilliant victory at Largah and Cahul. Having mastered Ishmael, Kilia and Akkerman, the Russians established themselves in Budjak. In early July 1770, the famous Chesme Battle took place, during which the Turkish Mediterranean fleet was almost completely destroyed by the combined Russian squadrons of Alexei Orlov.

As a result, the Turkish side proposed to conclude a truce and begin to develop a peace treaty. In the summer of 1772 in the small Romanian town of Focsani, two delegations met - the Russian and the Ottoman. The negotiations lasted all summer, but in August, on the orders of the Grand Vizier, the Turks left the negotiations. But already at the beginning of autumn (after the regular military setbacks), the Turks had to resume negotiations - Field Marshal Rumyantsev received a new letter from the Vizier, who suggested resuming the elaboration of peace agreements.

New peace negotiations took place this time in Bucharest. From November 1772 to March 1773, Russians and Turks tried unsuccessfully to coordinate their positions. The failure of the Bucharest Congress, as it is sometimes called, made the continuation of hostilities inevitable. And so it happened - in April 1773, the war between the two powers resumed.

This time the military fortune was not so favorable to the Russian troops, and they suffered a series of failures. In addition, in the autumn of 1773, a peasant revolt broke out in Russia, led by Yemelyan Pugachev, which developed into a full-fledged civil war.This, of course, could not but reflect on the foreign policy of the Russian Empire. The war lasted for about five years and cost Istanbul and St. Petersburg enormous costs that threatened economic collapse. It can be said that by that time both sides were eager to end the exhausting war. However, hostilities continued until the crucial turning point.

In early May 1774, Russian troops crossed the Danube. In the course of fierce bloody battles, costing considerable losses to both sides, the army of Rumyantsev was able to develop its success, moving deep into the territory of the enemy. On June 20, the famous Battle of Kozludzhi took place, where the Ottoman troops suffered a crushing defeat. However, the Russian units were exhausted. Both sides desired peace. On July 1, 1774, the Turkish envoy delivered a new letter from the Grand Vizier to the headquarters of Rumyantsev with a proposal to conclude an armistice and resume peace negotiations.

This time the negotiations were not long - the desire of both parties to make peace was truly extraordinary. As a result, the world was finally signed on July 21, 1774 in Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhe.From the Russian side, it was signed by Lieutenant-General Nikolai Repnin, from the Ottoman side - the great vizier Ahmed Resmi-efendi and Reis-efendi Ibrahim Munib. The text of the contract consisted of an introduction, 28 articles and a secret annex, which included 2 articles.

Among the main and most significant conditions of this world was, above all, the recognition of the independence of the Crimean Khanate, as well as the Kuban Tatars. From now on, they recognized the supremacy of the Ottoman Sultan only in religious matters, he became a caliph for them. Russia retained the fortresses of Enikale, Kerch, Azov and Kinburn. From now on, Russian ships in the Black Sea enjoyed the same privileges as the British and French. Finally, under the terms of the Kyuchuk-Karnaij Peace Treaty, the Ottoman side recognized the right of protection and participation in the affairs of Christians of the Danube principalities, including Moldova, in the Russian Empire.

The Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhi peace treaty radically changed the balance of power between the two great powers - Russia and the Ottoman Empire. He eventually led to the annexation of the Crimean peninsula to the Russian Empire in 1783, as well as to the discovery of the Black Sea for Russian trade.

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  • July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia

    July 21, 1774 began the annexation of the Crimea to Russia