Mysteries of Russian history
Winston Churchill said: "Russia is a puzzle wrapped in a mystery wrapped in a riddle."
We can not disagree. Russian history is full of mysteries.
1. What does the word "Rus" mean?
Yes, we still do not know reliably where the word "Rus" came from. According to one version, from the toponym "Ros" (the name of the river), on the other - from the words Ruotsi, Roots, Rotsi (as the Finnish tribes called the Swedes). Lomonosov believed that the Rus were descendants of Sarmatians, who called themselves Roksolans or Rosomans (these words were supposedly modified to the word "Rus"). More "Ross" (red, red), the Byzantines called the tribes who raided Constantinople. Ibn Fadlan, who met the Vikings in 922, said about them: "They are like palm trees, rosy, red." There are many opinions, but there is no order.
2. Who was Rurik?
Regarding who Rurik was, historians also have no consensus. Some relate it to Rorik Jutland, the Danish king of the Skjoldung dynasty. Other historians believe that Rurik is the Swedish king Eirik Emundarson. There is also a version that Rurik was the leader of the Slavs-encouraged (Polab Slavs), and the version that Rurik came from the Baltic island of Ruyan, which today is called Rugen.There is an opinion that there was no Rurik at all. Until the 15th century, none of the Russian princes called themselves “Rurik”, and the dispute about the identity of Rurik began in the 18th century. So it did not end.
3. Was there a Mongol-Tatar yoke?
Here you can start with the fact that there have never been any Monglo-Tatars. This is an artificial term, coined in the XVIII century. The definition of "yoke" appeared in the XV century. For the first time it is found in the Kiev synopsis, as the Polish historian Jan Dlugosh translated the Latin term jugum. Only after that did they begin to speak of standing on the Ugra as a withdrawal from under the yoke. Later this term was “mastered” by Karamzin. Historians still do not come to a consensus about the game. Lev Gumilev considered the relationship of Russia and the Horde a viable union. The role of the Horde in the elevation of Moscow is undoubted, as even Karamzin noted. Nosovsky and Fomenko, in their research, even reach the point that Russia and the Horde are one and the same. They relate Batu to Yaroslav the Wise, Tokhtamysh and Dmitry Donskoy ... let us leave it on their conscience.
4. How did the double-headed eagle appear in Russia?
How did a double-headed eagle fly into Russia? He first appeared on the state press during the reign of Ivan III, therefore, it is believed that Sofia Paleolog was “brought” to Russia.However, it is unclear why he became a state symbol only 20 years after the wedding of Ivan III on Byzantine. In addition, the double-headed eagle was not used by the Byzantines on the state seals. But it was used by the Habsburgs, another half a century before the appearance of the Russian press, and was also on some coins of the Golden Horde, and was also one of the alchemical symbols. At the court of Ivan III there was no shortage of visiting expatriates-alchemists.
5. Where did the Cossacks come from?
This is the question with which hardly anyone will figure it out, so it is with who the Cossacks are. The homeland of the Cossacks is found both in the North Caucasus, and in the Azov region, and in Western Turkestan. The genealogies of the Cossacks are raised to the Scythians, to the Alans, to the Circassians, to the Khazars, to the Goths, to the wanderers. Supporters of all versions have their own arguments. Today, the Cossacks are a polyethnic community, in which representatives of several dozen ethnic groups are inscribed, among whom there are some quite unexpected ones - Moldovans, Turks, Estonians, Tajiks. The question of who the first Cossacks were still remains unresolved.
6. Did Grozny kill his son?
Did Grozny kill his son? The question is open. In 1963, when the tombs of Ivan the Terrible and his son were opened, the content of poison in the remains of the prince was incompatible with life.Long before this examination, Konstantin Pobedonostsev called repin depicted in the painting Repin fiction. The murder version was based on the stories of the papal legate Antonio Possevino, who can hardly be called a disinterested person.
7. Why did the Terrible abdicate the throne?
In 1575, Ivan the Terrible abdicated the throne and put a service Tatar khan Simeon Bekbulatovich on the throne. Contemporaries did not understand the meaning of the monarch's undertaking. It was said that the king was afraid of the predictions of the Magi that the Moscow king would die this year. Do not understand the meaning of this act and modern historians. There is a version that Grozny was afraid of an uprising in the former Kazan Khanate, where, by the way, he was still king. Almost a year Ivan the Terrible conducted his experiment.
8. Was the impostor False Dmitry I?
We have already accepted that the False Dmitry I is a runaway monk Grishka Otrepiev. But the whole story looks very surreal. At first, Dmitriy (with the prefix "false") recognized, for all honest people, his own mother, princes, boyars, and after a while, everyone suddenly saw the light. The fact that the prince himself was completely convinced of his naturalness, as contemporaries wrote, adds to the pathology of the situation. Either this is schizophrenia, or he had a foundation.By the way, the idea that “it was easier to save than to fake Dimitri” was expressed by Nikolai Kostomarov. But we are unlikely to ever find out the truth.
9. Why did the Zemsky Sobor elect a “non-passing candidate” for the role of tsar?
When the Zemsky Sobor of 1613 elected Mikhail Romanov to the kingdom, he was 16 years old. At the same time, he was not even in Moscow during the heated debates that flared up there. The main argument was that supposedly the late Tsar Fedor Ivanovich, before his death, wanted to transfer the throne to his relative Fyodor Romanov (Patriarch Filaret). And since he was in Polish captivity, the crown passed to his only son, Michael. As the historian Kliuchevsky later wrote, “they wanted to choose the most incapable, but the most convenient”.
10. Why did Aleksei Mikhailovich decide to reform the church?
The split of the Russian church was one of the hardest turning episodes of Russian history. Alexey Mikhailovich, grekofil, wished to change the church ceremonies "so that it was like the Greeks," and not who in that much. " This “upgrade” led to the largest spiritual confrontation in the history of Russia. About the reasons for the split, scientists still argue. Not the last place here, apparently, played the ambitions of the Russian tsar to the Byzantine throne.In 1649, Patriarch Paisii expressly wished at the tsar’s arrival that Aleksei Mikhailovich became tsar in Constantinople: “May you be the New Moses, and set us free from captivity.”
11. Why did Peter I Europeanize Russia?
During the years of his rule, Peter the Great changed Russia beyond recognition. After returning from the Great Embassy, the king changed so much that people began to talk about his being replaced. According to one version, Peter was "put into the wall", and instead of him they sent an impostor similar to the face of Russia. According to another, “the king in the Germans was laid in a barrel and put into the sea”. It was added to the fire by the fact that Peter, who had returned from Europe, began a large-scale destruction of the “Old Russian antiquity”. Why? There is no definite answer.
12. Was Paul the son of Peter III?
One of the main mysteries of Russian history - was Pavel the son of Peter III? Has the Romanov dynasty been interrupted? Catherine and Peter III had no children for a long time, the empress herself wrote that her husband suffered from phimosis. She mentioned the Empress in her diaries and that she was charmed by Sergei Saltykov, the alleged father of Paul I: “I did not give in all spring and part of the summer ...”.There is a folk legend about the birth of Paul I: according to her, Catherine gave birth to a dead child from Peter, and he was replaced by a certain “Chukhonian” boy.
13. Was Fedor Kuzmich Alexander I?
The son of Paul I, Alexander, also left a difficult riddle to historians. There is a legend that he left the royal throne, falsifying his own death, and went traveling in Russia under the name of Fyodor Kuzmich. There are several indirect confirmations of this legend. So, the witnesses concluded that on his deathbed, Alexander was absolutely not like himself. In addition, for unclear reasons, the Empress Elizabeth Alekseevna, the Tsar's spouse, did not participate in the mourning ceremony. The famous Russian lawyer Anatoly Koni conducted a thorough comparative study of the handwritings of the emperor and Fyodor Kuzmich and came to the conclusion that “the letters of the emperor and the notes of the wanderer were written by the hand of the same person”.
14. Where did the money from the sale of Alaska go?
Where did the money from the sale of Alaska go is still unknown. Gold bars were brought from London on the barge "Orkney", but it sank. Whether there really was gold is unknown.But the document is known, which says that most of the money was spent abroad on equipment for railways: Kursk-Kiev, Ryazan-Kozlovskaya, Moscow-Ryazan and others. We hardly ever know.
15. Why shot the royal family?
Historians still do not have a unanimous opinion as to who authorized the execution of the royal family and the Romanovs near Alapayevsk. The names of Sverdlov and Lenin are called, but the investigator Vladimir Soloviev, who has been involved in the shooting of the Romanovs since 1993, has repeatedly stated that neither Lenin gave any sanctions to be shot. nor Sverdlov. According to the memoirs of another investigator, Nikolai Sokolov, who was admitted by Admiral Kolchak to the investigation, the Ekaterinburg and Alapaev murder was “a product of the will of some individuals”. The question remains: whose will was it?
16. Where did “Kolchak's gold” disappear?
The fate of "Kolchak's gold", most of the gold reserves of Tsarist Russia, is still unknown. It was about 490 tons of pure gold in bars and coins worth 650 million. According to one version, it was stolen by the Czechoslovak Corps, on the other - it was hidden by order of Kolchak himself.Estimated burial sites: the gateway Maryina Griva in the Ob-Yenisei Canal, the mountains Sihote-Alin, Baikal, Irtysh. No gold has ever been found. There is also a version that gold “settled” in European banks.
17. What was the Tunguska meteorite?
Whether the Tunguska meteorite was still a meteorite is unclear. The search expeditions on the supposed place of the fall of the meteorite fragments were not found, there was not a crater there either. There are many versions of what happened: the explosion of a nuclear reactor of an interplanetary spacecraft, an ice comet, the collision of Earth with antimatter, the Nikola Tesla wave experiment. There are more than a dozen versions, but none yet is scientifically recognized.
18. Why did the Bolsheviks so easily took power?
Back in February 1917, there were 5,000 people in the Bolshevik party; in October of the same year, there were already 350,000. How did the Bolsheviks, who until the last moment were not considered a serious force, come to power? This can be explained by the sum of logical factors, from German money to propaganda, but it is impossible to deny that the 1917 revolution was an unprecedented phenomenon in world history. And the irrational factor was no less important than calculation.
nineteen.Why did Stalin decide to repress?
Historians have no consensus about the causes of Stalin’s repression. According to one version, Stalin led the fight against regional party organs that impede elections to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. On the other hand, repressions were a means of “social engineering,” a continuation of collectivization and dispossession of kulaks. Finally, there is a version that Stalin prepared the USSR for war and eliminated the “fifth column” in the country.
20. Why did Stalin return services in the church?
Historians cannot explain unequivocally the sharp change in the attitude of Stalin to the church after the start of the war. Some say that it was a pragmatic move by a leader who needed “braces” for mobilization. According to another version, Stalin was secretly religious, his bodyguard Yuri Soloviev recalled that Stalin prayed and even confessed, and Artyom Sergeev recalled in an interview that Stalin never said anything bad about the church at home, and even taunted his son Basil for disrespectful praying.
21. Why did Khrushchev condemn Stalin's personality cult?
The speech of Nikita Khrushchev at the XX Party Congress, where he condemned the cult of Stalin’s personality, became a sensation.Why did he decide on this? According to some, Khrushchev thereby "whitewashed" himself for participating in repression, while others believed he was preparing the reorganization of the state apparatus. There is even a version that he “avenged” Stalin for the death of his son. Given the long-term implications of this step, some historians even see the “hand of the West” here. The fall of the prestige of the USSR after the Twentieth Congress was enormous. Interesting and lively participation in the preparation of the report by Otto Kuusinen, who according to some collaborated with the British and American intelligence services, is also interesting.
22. Where did Raoul Wallenberg disappear?
The mystery of the disappearance of the diplomat Raoul Wallenberg in the USSR has not yet been solved. He, who saved tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews, was last seen on January 18, 1945. Later, there was evidence that he was seen in the Lefortovo prison. According to the version described in the memoirs of the KGB general Sudoplatov, Wallenberg was arrested on the personal order of Bulganin, and in 1947 was killed on the orders of Molotov. There is also a version that Wallenberg survived. He was seen by former prisoners of Ozerlag, Poles Tsihotsky and Kovalsky at one of the transit points. According to other testimonies, he was also seen in other camps and the Vladimir Central.The Poles also claimed that he was alive in October 1959.
23. Was the "party gold"?
There is a version that the hypothetical gold and foreign exchange funds of the Communist Party of the USSR in the early years of the 1990s "went" to European and American banks. Looking for the "gold of the party" many public and political figures. According to the journalist Yevgeny Dodolev, writer Yulian Semenov was eliminated because he was able to “reveal the schemes of conclusions of party millions”. However, there is also an assumption that the notorious “gold of the party” is nothing more than a myth.
24. Did Gorbachev know about the conspiracy?
On August 20, 1991, Gorbachev was scheduled to sign the Union Treaty, which was to designate a new position of the Soviet republics. But the event broke the coup. Did Gorbachev know about the conspiracy? There is still no definite answer to this question, but the fact that the Emergency Committee and the putsch is a project of Gorbachev himself is a fairly common version. Back in March 1991, he instructed the future members of the Emergency Committee to develop a draft law “On the introduction of a state of emergency”. Former member of the Government of the Russian Federation, Mikhail Poltoranin, also claims that "the 1991 coup was played out by Boris Yeltsin along with Mikhail Gorbachev."The official version is: Gorbachev did not know anything.