Outstanding architectural monuments of St. Petersburg: list, description, photo
Outstanding in terms of expressiveness is the complex - architectural monuments of St. Petersburg, which made up an exceptional feature of the historical center of the city, despite the fact that it was the youngest capital of the world. St. Petersburg is distinguished for its well-thought-out regularity of the overall development, amazing proportionality of all urban ensembles and harmoniousness in the style of polyphony, taking into account a very discreet natural environment. That is why architectural monuments of St. Petersburg are valuable for world art.
Styles and Wizards
Buildings in the city number up to fifteen different architectural styles, the main ones can be called Baroque - Petrine and Elizabethan, Classicism, Empire, Eclecticism, Art Nouveau and Constructivism. Italian baroque - the heyday of absolutism - from 16 to 18 century. Here, complex curvilinearness, dynamics, splendor and whimsicality triumph. Architectural monuments of St. Petersburg represent this style is very diverse.
Before Peter the Great, architecture in Russia was called "Russian Uzoroch" and was most often embodied with the Byzantine tradition in temple construction. Russian Baroque - the fusion of these two styles. However, both the Moscow and the Petrine Baroque differ not only from each other, but also to a greater extent - from the West European one. If you compare the architectural monuments of St. Petersburg of the Petrine era with the center of any ancient Italian or French city, you can personally see it.
Tsar Peter the Great willingly invited architects from the West, and as a result of the German-Dutch-Italian-French joint creativity the phenomenon of this Petersburg style arose. There was a Northern War, residential buildings were not built almost completely, entirely of wood in a hurry.
But even then there were constructions that our contemporaries know: shipyard, port, fortress - with a simple, laconic, rational and restrained architecture created under the significant influence of the Dutch and Germans.
There were no stucco moldings, porticoes and colonnades, but the facades often had pediments, volutes, pilasters, and roofs - spiers, which emphasized all the verticals and horizontals. Inside the building they were most often planned with an enfilade. Even then flush toilets and water pipes were arranged in the buildings.
The temple and fortification architecture was simple, but elegant: the bell tower of the Peter and Paul Cathedral, St. Panteleimon's Cathedral, the Peter and Paul Fortress with its Petrovsky Gates, the Summer Palace of Peter the Great, the Menshikov Palace, the Twelve Colleges, the Kikins of the Chamber, the Kunstkammer, the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, the Italian Palace in Kronshtadt . Architects of the time: M.G. Zemtsov, D. Trezzini, A. Schlüter, J.-B. Leblon, G. Mattarnovi, J.M. Fontana.
The daughter of Peter the Great was far from his father's building aspirations, but the whole of her era applied the ideas of the West-European baroque in its purer form, as the empire under her hand hungered for splendor, splendor and grandeur. Architectural monuments of St. Petersburg 18 century most vividly characterize the overall style of the city. Large cathedrals, temples, manors, palaces were built-more and more decorative and picturesque, with wide ceremonial staircases inside, with double-lighted halls and enfilades.
The interiors of that time were fantastically bizarre, with an abundance of modeling, carved ornaments, with a patterned parquet and mirrors. Enhanced baroque colors were combined with order inserts. The construction of five-domed churches was resumed, the traditions of carved gilded iconostases and Russian temple decorations were restored according to the Byzantine canons. And now visitors can join the splendor of the style, which stores the architectural monuments of St. Petersburg.
Briefly about masters and buildings
This era is crowned, of course, by B. Rastrelli, but the series was also created by F.S. Argunov, and S.I. Chevakinsky, and A.V. Kvasov, as well as P. Trezzini and A.F. Whist. Twenty years before 1760, in the Elizabethan baroque style Anichkov, Stroganov and Vorontsov palaces, the Smolny Cathedral, the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoe Selo, the Winter Palace and the Great Peterhof, the Naval Cathedral and many others were built.
Catherine the Great
The next twenty years the St. Petersburg building went under the sign of enlightened absolutism and in the style of early classicism. The buildings were harmoniously ordered, with the progressive development of simplicity and grandeur at the same time - as a visiting card of an immense country.
External manifestations - antique warrants, monumentality, restraint, all this in the classicist buildings architectural monuments of St. Petersburg. The photos with the description will help to distinguish the early classicism from its other varieties.
Buildings in the style of early classicism
The current Administrative building of the Russian State Pedagogical University on the Moika embankment is the former palace of Count Razumovsky, which was built by A.F. Kokorinov and Zh.B. Wallen-Delamot, was one of the first early-classicist buildings. In its architecture, elements of the Corinthian and Ionic orders, bas-reliefs, arcades are seen, but the influence of baroque is still noticeable. The front yard with monumental gates and a high fence highlights the solemnity of the building.
Architectural monuments of St. Petersburg, the list of which is extremely long, are represented by other creations of these talented masters. This is the Repin Institute on the University Embankment, the house of 17, and earlier there was the Imperial Academy of Arts; the building of St. Petersburg State University on the University embankment, house 9, earlier - the body for ball games; The Yusupov Palace. Wallen-Delamot built the Hanging Garden and the Northern Pavilion of the Small Hermitage. Yuri Felten, a student of Rastrelli, built a school for petty-bourgeois girls, the Great Hermitage, the Armenian Church, Lutheran churches on Vasilievsky Island and St. Anna's Church on Kirochnaya, the house of 8.
Completely devoid of baroque features of the building, built after 1780 year, also belong to Catherine's classicism. They strictly follow the classical orders from Vitruvia or Palladio - with rectangular symmetrical arrangements, a wide application of arcades, colonnades, gables, porticos. Interiors were decorated with copies of antique sculptures and many elements of ancient civilizations.
The pioneer of this Petersburg style was Ch. Cameron, at the same time created VI. Bazhenov, D. Kvarnegi, I.E. Starov, N.A. Lviv. In their works - harmony and compositional completeness, laconism and proportionality of forms. A striking example is the Tauride Palace.
This five-year period before 1801 presents a slightly romantic version of classic architecture, which was clearly influenced by the Gothic style. It is primarily the Chesme Palace of the architect Yu.M. Felten - triangular shape with Gothic elements in the form of towers, pointed windows and toothed parapets.
Architectural monuments of St. Petersburg replenished and the southern European type of the Engineering Castle, where pure classicism is the main and southern facades with part of the interiors. The castle looks militant, manly, heavy eaves of the northern facade reminiscent of knight helmets.
The forerunner of the Russian Empire was Alexander Classicism, which is often identified with the Empire. Alexander the First also often invited foreign architects, especially French ones.
Therefore, buildings of this period are distinguished by strict Doric or Tuscan orders and heavy columns. There are sphinxes and other elements of the Egyptite style. The severity of lines, majesty, monumentality of the image are preserved with simplicity and clarity of silhouette.
Examples of the first revolution of Empire
In this style, the architectural monuments of St. Petersburg are represented by the building of the Mining Institute on the Vasilievsky Island, made according to the blueprints of A.N. Vorokhnin. Flutes on Doric columns especially emphasize the style, similar to the ancient temples, in any case, the statues of Anteus, Proserpine and Hercules are present.
Even more famous creation of this master is the Kazan Cathedral. Emperor Paul, who had conceived it, wanted to repeat the Vatican Council of St. Peter, and in some details the similarity is seen: in the overall layout, in a powerful central dome, in an elongated basilica and in the absence of a bell tower. In any case, this is a real decoration of Nevsky Prospekt.
High Classicism (late)
Most of all in this style worked Tom de Thomon: the building of the Bolshoi Theater (unfortunately, was not preserved completely), the house of Countess Laval, the New Exchange and the complex of arrows of the Vasilievsky Island (Rostral columns too). One can be sure that it is the widely spaced columns of the Exchange building that add spaces and harmonize the composition with the Nevsky space. And the building itself, and the Rostral columns adorn allegorical sculptures.
In the same period, the majestic Admiralty building - the symbol of the city on the Neva - the architect A.D. Zakharova. It was completed to the previous structure, from which there remained only the central part with the famous spire of the architect IK. Korobov. The facades turned out to be diverse, but very rhythmic due to the protruding porticos and Tuscan columns (by the way, they remained ionic in the center of the column). Thus, an ensemble was formed from the Senate, Isaakievskaya and Dvortsovaya squares and the Alexander Garden. At the same time, the architect Quarenghi built the Smolny Institute - also in the style of high classicism.
Signs of the Russian Empire - the triumph of victory over Bonaparte: with classical order systems and the former laconicism of forms appear memorable columns, triumphal arches, architecture absorbs more and more sculptures, the buildings are decorated with eagles, laurel wreaths, armor and other militaristic symbols.
The most famous masters of this direction are V.P. Stasov and K.I. Rossi. The latter very boldly transformed the urban space by building the ensembles of Palace Square with the building of the General Staff, the Senate Square with the Synod and the Senate, the Alexandrinsky Square with the theater. Architectural monuments of St. Petersburg photos will be presented much better than any description. Moreover, their huge number is simply impossible to describe in the space of one small article.