Poem "Requiem" (Anna Akhmatova). "Requiem": history of creation
The idea of the poem
In the preface to the poem, Akhmatova wrote thatthe idea of such a work in her originated in the years of "Yezhov", which she spent in prison queues, seeking a meeting with her son. Once she was recognized, and one of the women asked if Akhmatova could describe what was happening around her. The poet answered: "I can." From that moment the idea of the poem originated, as Akhmatova herself claims.
"Requiem", the history of creation of which is connected withvery hard years for the Russian people, was extorted by a writer. In 1935, the son of Akhmatova and Nikolai Gumilev was arrested for anti-Soviet activities - Lev Gumilev. Then Anna Andreevna managed to quickly release her son by writing a letter to Stalin personally. But in 1938 a second arrest followed, then Gumilev Jr. was sentenced to 10 years. And in 1949 the last arrest was made, after which he was sentenced to death, replaced later by reference. A few years later, Lev Gumilev was completely rehabilitated, and the charges were found to be unfounded.
Poem Akhmatova's "Requiem" embodied all thoseThe sadness that the poet has endured for these terrible years. But not only the family tragedy reflected in the work. It expressed the grief of all the people who suffered at that terrible time.
Sketches appeared in 1934. But this was a lyrical cycle, the creation of which was originally planned by Akhmatova. "Requiem" (the history of creation of which is our theme) became a poem later, as early as 1938-40. Finished the same product was already in the 50's.
In the sixties of the 20th century, a poem published insamizdat, enjoyed great popularity and passed from hand to hand. This is due to the fact that the work was prohibited. She transferred a lot to save her poem, Akhmatova.
"Requiem": history of creation - the first publication
In 1963, the text of the poem goes abroad. Here, in Munich, the work is first officially published. Russian emigrants appreciated the poem, the publication of these poems confirmed the opinion of the poetic talent of Anna Andreevna. However, the full text of "Requiem" was released only in 1987, when it was published in the journal "October".
The theme of Akhmatova's poem "Requiem" - sufferinga man by his loved ones, whose life weighs by a thread. The work consists of poems written in different years. But they are all united by a mournful and mournful sound, which is already pronounced in the title of the poem. Requiem is a musical work intended for a requiem.
In the prose preface, Akhmatova reportsthat the work is written according to someone else's request. The tradition established by Pushkin and Nekrasov has shown itself here. That is, the fulfillment of the order of a simple person, embodying the will of the people, speaks of the civic orientation of the whole work. Therefore, the heroes of the poem are all those people who stood with her under the "red blinded wall". The poet writes not only about his grief, but also about the suffering of the whole people. Therefore, her lyrical "I" is transformed into a large-scale and all-embracing "we".
Many-voiced and versatile "Requiem" (Akhmatova), the content of the poem and determined these features. Thanks to the multihero, the reader hears a crying and feels the grief of not one person, but all the victims.
The first part of the poem, written in three-leggedanapestom, speaks of its folklore orientation. And the images (dawn, dark room, arrest, similar to the removal of the body) create an atmosphere of historical authenticity and take you back to the depths of the centuries: "I like archer's wives." Thus, the sufferings of the lyrical heroine are interpreted as timeless, familiar to women in the Petrine years.
The second part of the work, writtenfour-legged chorea, sustained in the style of a lullaby. The heroine no longer laments and does not cry, she is calm and reserved. However, this humility is contrived, inside it grows real madness from the experience of grief. At the end of the second part, in the thoughts of the lyrical heroine, everything interferes, insanity takes possession of it completely.
The culmination of the work was the chapter "To Death". Here the main heroine is ready to leave life in any way: from the hands of a bandit, a disease, a "shell". But there is no mother of deliverance, and she literally stains from grief.
Poem Akhmatova's "Requiem" carries pain andsuffering of the whole Russian people. And not only experienced in the 20 th century, but also for all past centuries. Anna Andreevna does not set out her life with documentary accuracy, she talks about the past of Russia, her present and future.