Testicular cancer is a hyperplasia of the normal glandular tissue of the testicles atypical. As a result, they can not fully perform their basic function, and infertility occurs.
Very unfavorable in the development of testicular canceris that this process can not always be suspected by clinical signs at an early stage, when the process can still be stopped. That is why there are many cases of unfavorable outcome for the further life of patients.
Testicular cancer is a process that does not occur simultaneously. It is formed for a long time and in order that transformation begins to occur, carcinogenic factors are necessary. They can be:
- Testicular trauma
- transferred infection ("mumps") or sexually transmitted infections
- frequent prolonged hypothermia or insolation of the genital area
- not the descent of the testicle into the scrotum (cryptorchidism).
How to identify the cancer at an early stage?
There are some signs thatto force a man to consult a doctor. At the initial stages, testicular cancer can be manifested only by a feeling of heaviness and discomfort in the lower abdomen and genital area. This, as a rule, does not make the strong half worry.
Further, testicular cancer progresses, tumor cellsIt becomes more and more and there is an increase in testicles in size. At first it may look like a small puffiness, but then you can clearly feel a tight formation in the scrotal area.
At this point, patients begin to observepronounced pain syndrome, which replaces the feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen. The pain occurs as a result of squeezing the nerve endings in the scrotum, and there are, as is known, very many of them. Therefore, men often do not stand up and seek help.
The most common cases are when the cancerdevelops immediately in both testicles. However, patients are recorded who first have one testicle, and several years later another. This indicates that the process is progressing.
At the initial stages, testicular cancer looks like a seal in the scrotum with no visible changes. Then their tissue swells, the scrotum deforms and becomes grayish-blue.
Men with a diagnosis of testicular cancer suffer infertility, impaired erectile function and decreased libido. This occurs as a result of hormonal imbalance in the body.
As for the treatment of such patients, it is always complex. Cancer of the testicles can not be treated with chemo- or radiotherapy alone. Each patient and each case needs an individual approach.
The best results to datecan be obtained by a combination of radiation or chemotherapy and surgical removal of the pathological focus. Irradiation of a cancerous tumor slows down the process of reproduction of atypical cells, and means an increase in the time of remission. Thus, by removing the main focus of the tumor and conducting a course of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, patients not only improve the quality of life, but also prolong the period of remission. However, it is not always possible to perform a surgical procedure and it does not always justify itself. In some situations, it is best to use chemotherapy, radiation therapy and stimulation of the immune system to obtain a positive effect.
Irradiation of cancer cells can be carried out both before the operation and after it, you only need to look at the patient's condition, because not everyone can tolerate radiotherapy.
Removal of the regional lymph nodes gives their positive results in the event of the presence of metastases, but it does not eliminate the appearance of new foci.
The main rule in the treatment of testicular cancer is early diagnosis and adequate therapy. If this rule is met, then the prognosis for the patient will be favorable.