VAZ-2101, generator: wiring diagram, repair, replacement
In the car VAZ 2101 generator is one of thepower supplies. The second is a rechargeable battery, but it only participates in starting the engine, the rest of the time is recharged from the generator. Thanks to this symbiosis, it is possible to supply consumers even when the engine is stopped. You can make a comparison with motorcycles of the type "Minsk", produced in the Soviet era.
They did not have a battery, which is a bitthe cost of the vehicle became cheaper, but the lighting devices worked only with the engine running. But this is a motorcycle. On the car, such a scheme is inconvenient, since the engine must be started with a "curved" starter or with a tug. And this causes rather difficult difficulties.
Main components of the generator
Structurally, it consists of the following main elements:
- Rotor - moving part, rotates from engine crankshaft. Has an excitation winding.
- The stator is a stationary part of the generator, also has a winding.
- The front and back covers, inside whichthe bearings are installed. On them there are eyes for fastening to DVS. In the back cover there is a capacitor, necessary to cut off the variable current component.
- Semiconductor bridge - called "horseshoe" for similarity. Three pairs of semiconductor power diodes are mounted on a horseshoe-shaped basis.
- Pulley, which is worn the belt of the generator VAZ-2101. The belt is wedge-shaped (modern cars use multi-beam).
- Voltage regulator in the car VAZ-2101 is installed in the engine compartment, away from the generator. But still it must be considered part of the design.
- Brushes are mounted inside the generator and transmit the supply voltage to the excitation winding (on the rotor).
In total there are two of them - rotor (excitation) and stator(power). The principle of the plant's operation is that the generation of current in the power winding is possible only if the following two conditions are fulfilled:
- There is a constant magnetic field.
- This field rotates relative to the power winding.
Only with their observance will the generator work. By applying voltage to the rotor winding, we obtain a magnetic field. Since the rotor rotates from the crankshaft, the second condition is met. But you still need to pay attention to what is the connection scheme of the VAZ-2101 generator. It is connected to the battery in parallel for charging.
Principle of the generator
At the initial moment (when starting the engine)The voltage in the on-board network is equal to that in the battery (about 12 V). And at idle it will be maintained at about this level. But with increasing rotor speed, a voltage jump will occur up to 30 V. The reason: a higher voltage is applied to the field winding due to the increase in rotor speed (the magnetic field velocity increases). And this is fraught with damage to the car wiring and the failure of consumers.
Voltage regulator, brushes
It is necessary that the generator output voltageremained constant, and for this a simple principle is used. If we make the supply voltage of the rotor winding constant, we can avoid changing the magnitude of the magnetic field. At VAZ-2101, the generator should function under a load of 13-14 V. Even two identical relay regulators can hold a different voltage value.
Types of regulators:
- Mechanical- the basis is an electromechanical relay and a resistance for reducing the voltage.
- Semiconductor- the basis is a small circuit of low-power transistors or one power key.
- Mixed- in the design there is both a transistor circuit and an electromagnetic relay.
Brushes - this is exactly the element by means of which the circuit of connection of the generator VAZ-2101 is realized. Due to them, voltage is applied to the contact rings of the moving rotor.
How to remove the generator
To perform the dismantling, you will need the following tools:
- Keys are spanners for 10, 13 and 17.
- Mounting shovel.
- Penetrating grease type WD-40.
Initially, disconnect the battery anddisconnect the wires from the generator. It is desirable to perform all work with a slightly elevated front of the car or on the inspection pit, overpass. Before removing the generator, you need to loosen the drive belt. To do this, completely unscrew the key to the nut from the upper studs of the housing to the engine block. With her no problems should arise.
The generator housing must be moved to the block, afterwhich removes the belt. It will be problematic to loosen the lower mounting bolt. It is close to the ground, dust, dirt, water often gets on it. Therefore, pre-treat the threaded connection with penetrating grease.
Installation is in the reverse order. If you need to replace the generator with a more powerful one, you can install an analogue from the model of VAZ-2107 or 2109. They have more power and are able to ensure a stable charge of the battery. The difference from the "native" VAZ-2101 is that the voltage regulator is combined with the brush node.
The main thing is that there are no distortions, otherwise the beltwill tear, wear quickly, the load on the rotor will increase several times. For normal operation, it is necessary that this element has a certain tension. It is adjusted by changing the position of the body relative to the engine. Fixation is made by a nut in the top part of the generator.
The following mechanical and electrical failures can occur in the generator:
- Bearing wear is diagnosed by the characteristic whistling or scraping on the device side. Lubrication inside the bearings evaporates over time, which increases friction.
- Brushes generator VAZ-2101 is necessary in a timely mannerreplace to ensure normal operation of the car. If they wear out, a control lamp with a battery icon lights up on the dashboard.
- Insufficient or excessive battery charge isAn obvious sign of failure of the voltage regulator. The test can be performed with a conventional multimeter. Start the engine, turn on the dipped beam. Idling should be at about 800 rpm. It is necessary that the voltage across the battery terminals be 13.2 V.
- Blinking of light, pulsation is a sign of an exit frombuilding one or two semiconductor diodes in a rectifier assembly. At VAZ-2101 the generator is built according to the classical scheme - it generates three phases, then converts it to direct current by means of a rectifier.
- In the event that the generator does not give charging, andthe rectifier and the voltage regulator are functioning correctly, one can speak of the destruction of one of the windings. In this case, either a generator is replaced or a new rotor or stator is installed (depending on which of the windings is destroyed). Diagnosis is performed using a tester.
Despite the apparent simplicity in the carVAZ-2101 generator is able to deliver a lot of trouble to the owner. And if you noticed during the trip that the lamp on the dashboard caught fire, then it is necessary to take action to eliminate the damage as soon as possible. Sometimes it happens that the wire is simply oxidized, contact disappears, but it needs to be identified at an early stage, otherwise it will not be possible to leave when the accumulator accumulates.